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Type III is found largely in northeast Africa, particularly Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Somalia, and Sudan (although not in South Sudan).According to one 2008 estimate, over eight million women in Africa are living with Type III FGM.

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The surgical infibulation of women came to be known as pharaonic circumcision in Sudan, but as Sudanese circumcision in Egypt.

The procedures are generally performed by a traditional circumciser (cutter or exciseuse) in the girls' homes, with or without anaesthesia.

The World Health Organization (a UN agency) created a more detailed typology.

Types I–III vary in how much tissue is removed; Type III is the UNICEF category "sewn closed".

is the ritual cutting or removal of some or all of the external female genitalia.

The practice is found in Africa, Asia and the Middle East, and within communities from countries in which FGM is common.

The Inter-African Committee on Traditional Practices Affecting the Health of Women and Children began referring to it as female genital mutilation in 1990, and the World Health Organization (WHO) followed suit in 1991.

The term infibulation derives from fibula, Latin for clasp—the Ancient Romans reportedly fastened clasps through the foreskins or labia of slaves to prevent sexual intercourse.

UNICEF estimated in 2016 that 200 million women living today in 30 countries—27 African countries, Indonesia, Iraqi Kurdistan and Yemen—have undergone the procedures.

Typically carried out by a traditional circumciser using a blade, FGM is conducted from days after birth to puberty and beyond.

After the clitoris has been satisfactorily amputated ...

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