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There are several experimental designs intended for automobile use: for instance, Lotus of Norfolk, UK, has a prototype direct-injection two-stroke engine intended for alcohol fuels called the Omnivore A two-stroke engine, in this case with an expansion chamber illustrates the effect of a reflected pressure wave on the fuel charge.

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However, unlike most later two-stroke engines, his had a separate charging cylinder.

The crankcase-scavenged engine, employing the area below the piston as a charging pump, is generally credited to Englishman Joseph Day.

Beyond this, the rings will bulge into the exhaust port and wear quickly.

A maximum 70% of bore width is possible in racing engines, where rings are changed every few races. Transfer port time is set at a minimum of 26 degrees.

In a two-stroke engine, the end of the combustion stroke and the beginning of the compression stroke happen simultaneously, with the intake and exhaust (or scavenging) functions occurring at the same time.

Two-stroke engines often have a high power-to-weight ratio, power being available in a narrow range of rotational speeds called the "power band".

All functions are controlled solely by the piston covering and uncovering the ports as it moves up and down in the cylinder.

In the 1970s, Yamaha worked out some basic principles for this system.

The strong low pressure pulse of a racing two-stroke expansion chamber can drop the pressure to -7 PSI when the piston is at bottom dead center, and the transfer ports nearly wide open.

One of the reasons for high fuel consumption in two-strokes is that some of the incoming pressurized fuel-air mixture is forced across the top of the piston, where it has a cooling action, and straight out the exhaust pipe.

An expansion chamber with a strong reverse pulse will stop this out-going flow.

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